A Guide To Designing Low-Cost Ventilators for COVID-19

4. april. 2020
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Thank you to Datatrician for use of the Macgyvilator video: notown.info/two/video/xZudiqSUi9l_us0.html
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Writer/Narrator/Animator: Brian McManus
Editor: Dylan Hennessy (www.behance.net/dylanhennessy1)
Animator: Kirtan Patel (kpatart.com/)
Sound: Graham Haerther (haerther.net/)
Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster twitter.com/forgottentowel

[1] www.jto.org/article/S1556-0864(20)30132-5/pdf
[2] www.medtronic.com/us-en/about/news/increased-ventilator-manufacture.html
[3] www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545226/
[4] opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/22-3-the-process-of-breathing/
[5] emedicine.medscape.com/article/296625-overview
[6] books.google.com/books?id=oUNxDwAAQBAJ
[7] www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594148/
[9] books.google.com/books?id=oUNxDwAAQBAJ
[10] www.agvahealthcare.com/models
[11] www.agvahealthcare.com/covid-19

Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.

Music by Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com/creator

Migratory Birds - Curved Mirror
Stay Near - Luwaks
Diamonds in the Sky - Yi Nantiro
Departing - Luwaks
Rain Will Come - Alec Slayne
Dreaming While I'm Awake - David Celeste

Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung

  • Huge thanks to Rohin from Medlifecrisis: notown.info. Helped me tremendously in the direction this video took and fact-checked my script. This was a team effort with our sister channel notown.info. Wouldn't have been able to make this video so quickly without their help.

    Real EngineeringReal EngineeringÅr siden
    • @Grass Water actually I think that would completely solve the alveoli problem making the rest of the design much easier

      MGGMGGÅr siden
    • No more Made in China china uses your money to make Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

      Danny HDanny HÅr siden
    • you had a sister channel and didn't mention it???

      gwhogwhoÅr siden
    • @Game Plays 1230 as far as I know you cant do that, because the alveoli's will collapse and then you've got an even bigger problem.. Good thinking tho.

      SuperHuskySuperHuskyÅr siden
    • @Medlife Crisis Hi Rohin, first of all, thank you for the work that you do, it's truly amazing. I've got a question/comment about using Anesthetic machines as a ventilator. I'm a Hospital Medical Technician/Engineer from the Netherlands btw so sorry if my english isn't that great, also I don't have that much knowledge and experience in ventilators and Anesthetic machines, but I'm learning. But we have GE Healthcare's Aisys as Anesthetic machines and currently we are using them as ventilator for regular IC patients and when new COVID-19 patients arrive and waiting for transport to an other hospital (because our IC is full and we ran out of ventilators). We also had the Heat/moisture issue but we are using HME (Heat-Moisture-Exchange) filters on the expiratory tube almost directly after the patient, this keeps most of the heat and moisture within the patient and thus preventing damage. Also we use on some machines a humidifier (Fisher&Paykel). Nu question is, what are your thoughts on this and could this be used in your hospital? And if not, why? I'm quite curious haha

      SuperHuskySuperHuskyÅr siden
  • I saw an idiot in the comments of one of his more recent videos trying to convince people that anyone who gets one of the vaccines they have now will die within 1-2 years.

    astrolover 95astrolover 9510 dager siden
  • The poor playground fittingly like because brace nomenclaturally wobble at a well-groomed spring. murky, discreet archeology

    Andrew ZeitlerAndrew ZeitlerMåned siden
  • Agva ventilator. Did you know.?

    Isac FerreiraIsac Ferreira2 måneder siden
    • I just see it on your video nice

      Isac FerreiraIsac Ferreira2 måneder siden
  • "This subject needs no introduction" proceeds to do an introduction anyway lol.

    Ky SwingerKy Swinger3 måneder siden
  • Galway produced ventilators and YOU!? Such a wonderful place. I also hope I spelled that correctly.

    Nick WalkerNick Walker3 måneder siden
  • 02:37 Dat hand ventilation thooo

    Alexander MårtenssonAlexander Mårtensson3 måneder siden
  • The bite-sized baby seasonally like because selection neurophysiologically smell vice a decorous timbale. late, agreeable piccolo

    Ofarrell MertensOfarrell Mertens4 måneder siden
    • r/ihadastroke

      flop snailflop snailMåned siden
  • Aww he called it his sister channel and it's a girl... Or maybe it's his ACTUAL sister!!

    Anchor BaitAnchor Bait5 måneder siden
  • They make Peep valves that you can attach to circuits. This would give the ability of a BVM mechanical ventilator to produce Peep. www.boundtree.com/Oxygen-Equipment/Oxygen-Accessories/Adjustable-Peep-Valves/p/group000106

    Xavier CastroXavier Castro5 måneder siden
  • The Virgin Orbit vs the Real Chad Engineer

    s1mtl2mms1mtl2mm5 måneder siden
  • MIT's design does account for PEEP a little bit, although not fully-fledged like an ICU ventilator. Thanks for a great video as always!

    Stefan BuysStefan Buys7 måneder siden
  • if you need PEEP, and non-mandatory breathing features, wouldnt a small fan with variable speed control connected between the mouthpiece and the balloon work if you couple that with an airflow sensor situated between the aforementioned fan and balloon? it all could feed to an arduino which controls the pressure of the ventilator. One could also remove the mouthpiece in favor of a tube. @Real Engineering

    SwegfeshSwegfesh7 måneder siden
  • 12:14 what does that knife+fork symbol mean?

    Rik OverveldRik Overveld8 måneder siden
  • Hello! My name is Anne, and I work for QUEST for Education and Arts. We are an education forward non-profit community center aiming to empower students to take charge of their learning through custom tailored education. I am contacting you regarding the video you posted A Guid to Designing Low-Cost Ventilators for COVID-19. At QUEST, we strive to support students in their educational journeys, and are currently building STEAM kits to do so. The purpose of these kits is to get disadvantaged children excited about learning, and your material would assist us in that venture. The kits themselves will be distributed for a small fee, to insure that they are affordable for the families. Since your material is copyrighted, it is important we request permission to use your exceptional material in our kits. If you will grant permission for use, we will be diligent in crediting the material along with a link to your video. Would you be willing to grant us permission to use your copyrighted material and help us to support learning in the STEAM fields?

    Anne EverittAnne Everitt8 måneder siden
  • 4 months later. Problem persists. Who disliked this? Seriously. This is a problem for us all. Aside from the casualties, this is a year where children were robbed of education by people who didn't want to wear a mask, wash their hands or keep their genitals contained (VICTORIA AUSTRALIA, this is you).

    Anthony BarrettAnthony Barrett8 måneder siden
  • I was just in the hospital with pneumonia. I’ve been on a ventilator and it was awful.

    MYOB FLNYMYOB FLNY9 måneder siden
  • This video explained a lot of questions I had about these low cost ventilators , Other videos where a little patronising and explaining the obvious .

    David KDavid K9 måneder siden
  • Great video! Education surrounding the creation of low-cost ventilators is of the upmost importance. Hope for the future requires action today.

    The Ventilator ProjectThe Ventilator Project9 måneder siden
  • ah yes, now everyone and their left toes are coming out of the wood work with their badges, tittles, degrees and claims. None are trustworthy.

    mtl shdrmtl shdr9 måneder siden
  • Would a design like this be an improvement over the bag-squeezing technique? Quick primer: notown.info/two/video/z7Zop6mUZK1otZY.html and a longer, more demonstrative version here: notown.info/two/video/0Netq2GmidiqtJo.html

    Bryson JacobsBryson Jacobs9 måneder siden
  • 10:40 Seems like the same type of problem car engines with turbos have when exhaust pressure drops off. How to keep just enough pressure at all times to prevent turbo lag. Maybe the use of two bags in the bag squeezing ventilator design? A larger one to take care of the breathing and a smaller one on a different cam to take care of the PEEP is a possibility.

    solngv8solngv89 måneder siden
  • You're breathing manually now

    MWB GamingMWB Gaming9 måneder siden
  • AgVa Healthcare has developed portable ventilator which is comparable with any high end ventilator in functionality and is controlled by an Android app. Check it on google

    mohit malhotramohit malhotra10 måneder siden
  • There's a manually adjusted PEEP valve on most ambubags (1st problem solved). Humidity and oxygen are easy to control manually as well by attaching O2 humidifiers to the O2 source and adjusting O2 flow manually from the wall-flow (2nd problem solved). I can't argue with heating or assist control mechanisms. Although, an inline heater or even an electric blanket on a thermostat around the ambubag would work dandy. The respiration monitor built into every ICU monitor (via the ekg) would work fine of the input and could be wired into the ambubag vent with an override for minimal breaths per minute. Eh?

    Mark ColemanMark Coleman10 måneder siden
  • Hi @Real Engineering , could you please provide your feedback on rice university ventilator project notown.info/two/video/l9lpp2yUa9ukpZI.html , after checking your video out it seems they have not done even basic research at all.

    Pankaj PariharPankaj Parihar10 måneder siden
  • What about all of the ventilator designs used in recent history, like the 80s and 90s? Surely they're cheap to produce, because they use dated components. No silly touch-screens, no fancy shiny black and silver enclosures. Just a basic beige box with a bellows system. Some indicator bulbs, a buzzer alarm, a battery backup. That's all it needs to be.

    Dan CoulsonDan Coulson10 måneder siden
  • Thank you a lot for spreading the word!! My coworkers and i had found ourselves in this situation, already with a "well made prototype" as we thought... We're not biomedical engineers and we've been struggling understanding the technical needs of this devices, it is way too more complex than it seems, and thanks to vids like this we'll keep up with the research and hopefully achieve to build one viable device.

    Cesar TrujilloCesar Trujillo10 måneder siden
  • Haven't we invented yet an artificial lung just like a dialysis machine that can be attached to an artery and transfers oxygen into red blood cells and extracts CO2?

    noisywannoisywan10 måneder siden
  • Engineering student here, was wondering if there could be a part 2 to this video more focused on how we could go about designing ventilators at a lower cost

    Joyce YuJoyce Yu10 måneder siden
  • Excellent viedo! thank you for explaning it so well :)

    Modeling & MusicModeling & Music10 måneder siden
  • Wired is now promoting these dangerous contractions watch?v=ODwkveIe7Cc

    JtzkbJtzkb10 måneder siden
  • This is a really good video. It's important, informative, costructive and well done. Good job!

    FabianFabian10 måneder siden
  • Americans are so cool people I wish I was a American instead of Indian

    gulf war veterangulf war veteran10 måneder siden
  • Ventilators killed patients by the 10's of thousands. Stop manufacturing murder machines.

    Ari GSDAri GSD11 måneder siden
  • Thank you, this seems useful.

    +Tec+Tec11 måneder siden
  • Can u plz tell us more about inside a ventilator for covind 19

  • Always wonder what electronic pressure sensors they use even the most advanced are +/-10% of 1bar which is not good enough for low pressures. The most accurate is of course the water manometer. Not everything electronic is necessarily as good as a mechanical standard. I have used low pressure sensors and they are easily damaged and put out of calibration.

    mechmaniamechmania11 måneder siden
  • :(

    Daniel MonkeyDaniel Monkey11 måneder siden
  • Thanks for the invaluable information.

    Susovit DwaSusovit Dwa11 måneder siden
  • Yes indeed, an excellent video. Precisely informative, critical flaw admissions of some design considerations, yet spreading hope that the issues can still be surmounted in producing a more affordable, meaningfully and relevantly complete and workable design. Thanks for the inputs too.

    Muralidhar NarasimhanMuralidhar Narasimhan11 måneder siden
  • Great work here! I built a ventilator from a windshield wiper motor and a foot pump. It's my latest video.

    Wildman TechWildman Tech11 måneder siden
  • 6:09 That ventilator finally explains why Virgin Orbit _Cannot get to orbit_

    Showcase MeShowcase Me11 måneder siden
  • This is an exceptional video. Exactly the kind of accurate content we need in this echo chamber of non sense and patronization. More power to you! I hope you keep bringing us, not just content but also perspective!

    Rohan JainRohan Jain11 måneder siden
  • Colloidal silver inhale directly to bloodstream is effective for Sar-cov 2 (corona virus) ?

    Inclusive MediaInclusive Media11 måneder siden
  • My inhaler is manufactured in Ireland. I wonder if Ireland is a hotspot for medical industry.

    CepheidCepheid11 måneder siden
  • Why did 80 % of the patients on the ventilators die?

    Kristie HansenKristie Hansen11 måneder siden
  • A French team in the city of Nantes invented a ventilation machine with functionalities only dedicated to COVID 19 issues (a team of engineers, doctors, etc), they share the opensource plans online : makair.life/ This project has been selected by the French stated to be funded. I think it's smarter to focus their machine on the current need to save time and address the urgent problems !

    AetiusAetius11 måneder siden
  • Great vid! I was wondering if a simpler machine might be used for part of the time, after which the patient is transferred to a more advanced machine later on for lung convalescence. If so, how large a percentage of the workload could these simpler machines take on?

    Diedert SpijkerboerDiedert Spijkerboer11 måneder siden
  • This is a great video as it highlights the challenges that are involved in making a real life support product. However, The product made by Agva is shown on this video clip is not even close to a real ventilator. The company is a scam company. Please read the following article: the-ken.com/story/ventilator-procurement-problems/? This shows how Agva has published false certificates and has scammed the government ventilator tenders with their own specification. The company has failed to deliver on every front. It just believes in making big claims for publicity and no basis. According to this article FDA has approved Agva as ventilator manufacturer. FDA never approves a company, it approves products, Over and above, FDA would never approve a product that works on android tablet. As demonstrated in the video, the product does not even have bacterial filters. It is not safe to use this product for COVID patients and the medical staff. As demonstrated in the video, companies like Medtronic are struggling to ramp up the production of ventilators and A company like Agva is making false public statements of making 20000 units. Its about time people in India and around the world wake up and understand that ventilators cannot be build in garages. Please do not support companies like Agva that are making false claims and are unethical. Your video is presenting the right content except the piece where it is making publicity for fake companies like Agva. Humble request, please remove that part as it can be used to spread false knowledge.

    Nirav PatelNirav Patel11 måneder siden
  • What about the issue of filtration of pathogenic material?

    Anthony NguAnthony Ngu11 måneder siden
  • Is it just me or does the lung animation look like a face of some description?

    Anthony NguAnthony Ngu11 måneder siden
  • Did the doctor explain it correctly? I thought CPAP was continuous while PEEP was only positive pressure at the end of epiration.

    tinytophytinytophy11 måneder siden
  • As long as it's not made in China posing a life risk, I might try it

    Stop PlayingStop Playing11 måneder siden
  • in my country the government wants to buy 5k$ ventilator in 48k USD....

    sherloniosherlonio11 måneder siden
  • Yo I'm from longford ayyy

    Adam SantosAdam Santos11 måneder siden
  • Kudos 👍

    flashbot aiflashbot ai11 måneder siden
  • The reason is as a engineer we dont really dont aware of those things we see it as a fancy air compressor We need actual medical assistant to make those thing do what they should do

    Awdhoot KanawadeAwdhoot Kanawade11 måneder siden
  • I needed to watch this for a final project. Thank you for the information!

    James ShewanJames Shewan11 måneder siden
  • Some companies now make money by making cheap mandatory breathing devices.

    Konstantin ScheglikovKonstantin Scheglikov11 måneder siden
  • What is ephedrine? Could it save lives? during this C-19 crisis... Ephedrine is used for temporary relief of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing due to bronchial asthma. Ephedrine may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. Ephedrine is a decongestant and bronchodilator.

    Dana BidlakeDana Bidlake11 måneder siden
  • Mother nature is the is the most brilliant engineer.

    Dhanesh NairDhanesh Nair11 måneder siden
  • Amazing job right here

    martincillot27martincillot2711 måneder siden
  • We all hope engineers will improve their design from now refined requirements. People are dying everywhere, we can't afford time and resources in stupid ego fights

    Renato Corrêa ArriecheRenato Corrêa Arrieche11 måneder siden
  • What if the bag squeezing is done by a mechanism operated by servo motors those are controlled with MCUs which have pressure sensers calliberated and in parallel with the air pumping pipe there goes a pipe that supplies air at constant pressure for peep that can be done with same mechanism as blower works will that be rigjt?

    zaryab rizvizaryab rizvi11 måneder siden
  • I cant believe virgin orbit ask to take down this video because they got roasted lol

    azatecasazatecas11 måneder siden
  • I worked on a translation in Arabic for the video please approve it so I can help you fight rummers

    Yousif MohammedaliYousif Mohammedali11 måneder siden
  • I think this video conflates the arguments from many that ventilators are being overused, and are largely ineffective for treatment COVID-19 with the poorly thought out designs for emergency use mechanical ventilation. Seems we should be working on treatments that avoid mechanical ventilation as much as possible, given the generally poor outcomes. If a relatively high PEEP is required, then why aren't we exploring the use of modified CPAP devices more? What about the positive pressure oxygen hoods which seem to have shown to be effective? They work with the patient is not sedated, don't force them to breath on a mechnical cycle, and could be temperature and humidity controlled. I don't think anyone is saying that MVs can be eliminated, but other treatments may reduce the number of MVs needed at any given time.

    daemn42daemn4211 måneder siden
  • Amazing, thank you for this information.

    Wissam SeifWissam Seif11 måneder siden
  • Really good video with constructed arguments. Just one question: In a situation where the medical capacity of respirators would it be better to have some emergency engineered respirators withou the blows and whistles like preheating/preconditioning or none at all and let those patients die? I mean i am all for constructive criticism but virgin is not the only one that have tried this. Putting a demand that emergency respirators will be at the same level of engineering that have been developed the last 50 years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars each is not really a fair argument. It seems to me that there is a small part of medical equipment lobbying act in your argument. You go for the ''either all or nothing'' mentality. If i needed a respirator and the doctor told me that i will die the next 6 hours or take my chance with an emergency one that does not have preheating i would go for the emergency one... i am not dumb. Even though if it caused me lower lung capacity or a sore throat...

    CosmicMicronCosmicMicron11 måneder siden
  • English: (Ireland). I see totally MASSIVE differences from English: English and English: Ireland.

    NoizsegatNoizsegat11 måneder siden
  • 2:00 American here who works at a hospital. There are really only a couple different parts of the USA, like parts of NYC, that are overwhelmed with patients. At the hospital I'm working at we expanded our ICU while most of the public was arguing politics. We are currently only using 10% of our COVID patient capacity.

    JustinJustin11 måneder siden
  • Plz inform about the resources for sensors used in ventilators especially em sensor to monitor the lungs respiratory cycles

    Six D Studio StudioSix D Studio Studio11 måneder siden
  • 12:09-12:38

    DoctorShroomDoctorShroom11 måneder siden
  • I do not think it needs high performance processors (except, maybe, for rendering a nice UI). My guess is that ~10ms reaction would be more than enough. The biggest trouble would likely be to make software that would react reliably to required events.

    Petr GladkikhPetr Gladkikh11 måneder siden
  • With Virgin Galactic, let me guess how it's happened. Engineers genuinely wanted to help somehow. Then someone from marketing department strolled by, saw the contraption, and had a brilliant idea of having more of it.

    Petr GladkikhPetr Gladkikh11 måneder siden
  • Excellent video. But I cannot stop thinking that it has been happening for 3 months (at the 4th of April) already - not 2 weeks.

    Petr GladkikhPetr Gladkikh11 måneder siden
  • Basically everyone has a smartphone, so why not write an app with the software for the ventilator and use the Patients Phone. That would eliminate the need for high speed processor in the device. Edit: right at the moment i send the comment, the indians showd up...

    El One Mac BongEl One Mac Bong11 måneder siden
  • Just use bullets or lethal injection

    I DunnoI Dunno11 måneder siden
  • You might want to check out this project: www.corovent.com/. Cheap yet sophisticed enough ventilator to support Covid pacients for even weeks. Not the 2010 MIT design.

    Michal ŠtádlerMichal Štádler11 måneder siden
  • Hello. Can anyone indicatee where i can find a good ventilators technical specification. So that we engineers that know noghting about medecine, we can actually create a ventilators that suit peoles need

    james DAVIDjames DAVID11 måneder siden
  • In the end, turned out less pressing a concern than was thought, no shortage, modeling failure, and ventilators less effective than thought for all but the far gone.

    wackity shackwackity shack11 måneder siden
  • Finally a decent vid about vents.

    view youtubeview youtube11 måneder siden
  • Is it possible to use iron lungs? ( polio)

    noodel inc.noodel inc.11 måneder siden
  • Brian did study medical engineering as a matter of facts.

    Nda NicNda NicÅr siden
  • Soup

    kashif khankashif khanÅr siden
  • Excellent explanation of this massive issue I was not even aware of. So much talk of ventilators in the news, but no outlet has gone in depth to show the complexity and precision required to design, manufacture and use them.

    David BrennerDavid BrennerÅr siden
  • Why can I like this only once!?!????!?!?!?

    L3v14th4nL3v14th4nÅr siden
  • An indiginous pressure based ventilator designed facebook.com/ashish.patil.9887/posts/10216466574967940?comment_id=10216466796573480&notif_id=1587580801185027&notif_t=feed_comment

  • THis is a great video! If you as an engineer or engineer student find yourself ofput of beaten down by the realisation that a ventilator is much more complicated than what you might have produced, dont be. It takes years to become even a non-specialised doctor, you most likely dont have that education and thus its nigh impossible for you to acutally understand all the minute details of a respitory system. Use what you gather from the video and adapt your design. Making a bad design is easy, improoving on it is harder and making it good can be really tricky, but even if you fail you have learnt something that you will be able to translate into new areas of your life and engineering studies/work. A+'s to everyone who's doing what they can in these times. We all have to take responsibility and help in what ever way we can. If its staying at home then thats great! It all helps in the end!

    Zipp4EveryoneZipp4EveryoneÅr siden
  • one of the best channels on youtube

    Dreamside OutDreamside OutÅr siden
  • Could you bypass the breathing cycle by using two tubes just constantly pushing in some and taking out some air, so instead of breaths it’s a constant stream of new air and pulling out old air? That way you don’t need to monitor when someone takes a breath?

    GavinGavinÅr siden
    • The Lungs aren't adapted for that. It would only help marginally.

      -RandomUserName--RandomUserName-11 måneder siden
  • Vents aren't the way to go. ECMO is the safer alternative.

    QuestchaunQuestchaunÅr siden
  • Thank you this video is really helpful

    Prudvi KamtamPrudvi KamtamÅr siden
  • This video is the best explanation of how mechanical ventilator machine works!

    abhishek kapadiaabhishek kapadiaÅr siden
  • He sounds like the PROFESSOR

    Mo MurkazMo MurkazÅr siden
  • Hey hi! An undergrad Biomedical here.Basically I knew nothing much about biomedical devices, and so I decided to start of with this one.It was really helpful, giving me an idea of what actually a ventilator is, and what are the things required to design one.It will be really helpful for me and other biomedical engineering students out there, if you make more videos like these, related to biomedical engineering (the devices, etc).Thank you so much!

    harsha bharsha bÅr siden
  • Damn that doctor is the definition of a rockstar. Thumbs up for them, i would like to see more of this kind of videos, you all really are masters of your trade.

    Ariel ErosaAriel ErosaÅr siden
  • Needs a precision type device to push air. Here's my design w/ a stepper motor: notown.info/two/video/0syNpaxombOi0LM.html

    Jay LorenzanaJay LorenzanaÅr siden
  • Great video

    Michael W.Michael W.År siden