Why Does Wing Dihedral Make Planes Stable?

10. nov.. 2019
693 115 Ganger

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Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
Editor: Dylan Hennessy (www.behance.net/dylanhennessy1)
Animator: Mike Ridolfi (www.moboxgraphics.com/)
Sound: Graham Haerther (haerther.net/)
Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster twitter.com/forgottentowel
[1] www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/dihedral-effect
[2] www.b737.org.uk/techspecsdetailed.htm
[3] www.rcscalebuilder.com/Tutorials/dihedral/dihedral.pdf
[4] www.usni.org/magazines/naval-history-magazine/1995/february/designing-bent-wing-bird
Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.
Music by Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com/creator
The Night Lights - Rippled Stone
Papaya Island - Dye O
Greenwich Lights - Gridded
Beyond Rivers and Dust - Alec Slayne

Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung

  • First episode of the Logistics of D-Day series is now available on Nebula. Cheapest and best way to get access is through curiositystream.com/realengineering/. Upon signing up you will get an email with your login info for watchnebula.com

    Real EngineeringReal EngineeringÅr siden
    • @bionku pog

      Applecow_Applecow_2 måneder siden
    • Jj

      Applecow_Applecow_2 måneder siden
    • How yoke works? What happened when pilots pull the yoke stick?

      Prajaya GuasimundoPrajaya Guasimundo7 måneder siden
    • It's "angle of attack" not "angle of attach"

      Atomic BlastAtomic BlastÅr siden
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      Dzeno2010Dzeno2010År siden
  • Seeing the PBM sure made me happy

    Ray_RGRay_RG4 dager siden
  • so...basically , the wing being angled up acts the same as a drift car that runs as much caster as possible ? to create " self steer" ...?

    THEREgoes MILLERTHEREgoes MILLER4 dager siden
  • can you explain why concorde has low mounted wing but is anhedral?

    Tom YaoTom Yao5 dager siden
  • 2:47 angle of "attach" typo

    Edward ChanEdward Chan11 dager siden
  • 5:37 even though watching on mobile, still checked for WhatsApp messages

    Wiebe MartensWiebe Martens22 dager siden
  • JU-87 : don't have retractable landing gear my brain : "*GEar Up GeAr uP*"

    Vincent AtuhVincent AtuhMåned siden
  • bruh

    Glitched BloxGlitched BloxMåned siden
  • So, very roughly speaking, wherever you mount your wings the wingtips should roughly sit at the same height as the fuselage centreline

    Dean SuDean SuMåned siden
  • 7:33 thats airdrop if ive ever seen it

    Henrique Machado MoreiraHenrique Machado MoreiraMåned siden
  • If I see correctly, the F-29 has perfectly straight wings, couldn't you add an angle to solve its stability problems?

    Marco PohlMarco Pohl2 måneder siden
  • Thank you for the PBM footage! Grandpa was a radioman in the war flying on those, and they're rare to see.

    RCFlyBoy314RCFlyBoy3142 måneder siden
  • here there is an explanation of dihedral notown.info/two/video/mLiPo5yKjK5hmLc.html

    Fisica y Quimica CanalFisica y Quimica Canal2 måneder siden
  • Did anyone hear a meow at 5:25 ?

    Maldindu WijayarathnaMaldindu Wijayarathna2 måneder siden
  • Idea: winglet fractal

    Rawhide LampRawhide Lamp2 måneder siden
  • F4U gull wing also made for perpendicular wing-fuselage intersection almost centered on the fuselage, resulting i reduced parasitic drag. Greg's Airplanes does an indepth analysis of F4U design.

    Richard RiglingRichard Rigling2 måneder siden
  • The noxious bandana scientifically obtain because thing socially fill against a changeable army. vacuous, aggressive trumpet

    Jonki PastramkiJonki Pastramki3 måneder siden
  • for high winged aircraft one ( anhedral ) you said that it will be roll more due to the high angle of attack, but after a while you said it will be produce a restoring (moment) but how I will know if it will produce more roll or restoring force?

    aymane hdaymane hd3 måneder siden
  • so the increased AOA on the low wing in a sideslip, is that airflow that is essentially running spanwise along the wing?? Is that spanwise flow contributing to lift? I'm so confused. I researched this all day yesterday but got as far as "the low wing has a higher angle of attack" with no further explanation

    Velvet VoidhammerVelvet Voidhammer4 måneder siden
  • Maybe it is a conspiracy by the fuel industry to make more money?

    DeltaDooby DDeltaDooby D4 måneder siden
  • Does anyone else only watch these when it’s the Irish guy

    Danny PerrinDanny Perrin4 måneder siden

    Star Wars GopherStar Wars Gopher5 måneder siden
  • I did not understand a few things.2:40 the planes are rolling so how does the angle of attack changes? the angle of attack changes when the pitch is altered

    Fenris ElecitFenris Elecit5 måneder siden
  • No put anhedrak on low mounted inns and dihedral on high mounted wings. That’d be some weird looking planes

    A_HUMANA_HUMAN5 måneder siden
  • The same reason why your paper airplane doesn't go straight with flat wings

    r e er e e5 måneder siden
  • 6:35 This was actually for a fancy aerodynamic reason. Short landing gear could have been achieved with a low wing. The reason for the gull wing lies in the fact that the corsair was designed for straight line speed, and a wing root joining perpendicular to the fuselage offers the lowest parasitic drag. THAT is why the wing is a gull wing instead of just a low wing.

    Dean SuDean Su5 måneder siden
  • Hmm...all along I thought that dihedral was to correct for "adverse yaw" when a plane rolls, which is caused by an increase in induced drag on the wing that ascends during the roll.

    paradigmshift03paradigmshift036 måneder siden
  • 6:38 *an 225 excuse me

    æ ææ æ6 måneder siden
  • U should make hour long versions of these

    rajveer munderajveer munde6 måneder siden
  • Thanks! I was testing upwards and downwards but I couldn't figure out why downwings aren't stable

    Hankyu KimHankyu Kim6 måneder siden
  • what would happen if i stack dihedral wings?

    Elca's AltElca's Alt7 måneder siden
  • Can you even butter an an-225? Like which wheel would you touch down first😂

    A German ShermanA German Sherman7 måneder siden
  • attach = applying/fastening an object to another object attack = violence.

    PewPewsAlotePewPewsAlote7 måneder siden
  • 2:48 lesser? attach?

    MateeMatee7 måneder siden
  • Great explanation, learned something today.

    NunyaNunya7 måneder siden
  • laughs in c 5 galaxy

    KEKKEK7 måneder siden
  • The F4U wing was to keep the landing gear short for the rugged service of use on an aircraft carrier while enabling use of a large enough prop to handle the power of the engine. It was NOT about aerodynamics.

    Brice FleckensteinBrice Fleckenstein7 måneder siden
  • The explanation is good, but the angle of attack drawing is not so clear. I would have preferred a view front view, from the "wind prospective" so that when the plane yaws you can see the difference in angle of attack (the under side of one wing would appear to be bigger)

    dario dal cindario dal cin7 måneder siden
  • Can you do one on sailling?

    Mattheus de koningMattheus de koning7 måneder siden
  • 2:02 No wonder why Ryanair landings are so bad, their 737s are already unstable in the ground

    ATVERATVER8 måneder siden
  • you missed to talk about the effects on lift since a negative dihedral is very much a concave down shape which when in flight will force a wider pressure field underneath thus increasing lift. you can make a simple experiment when driving your car pull a hand out in the incoming air stream and while pretending your hand is a wing, concave your hand down and updwards

    Leo oramLeo oram8 måneder siden
  • stuka have inverted wing to MORE B O M B

    IMPERIAL EMPIRE GROUP Now with Jolteon?IMPERIAL EMPIRE GROUP Now with Jolteon?8 måneder siden
  • 3:12 Can you explain why this aircraft has it's horizontal stabilizer mounted so high?

    worroSfOretsevraHworroSfOretsevraH8 måneder siden
  • I heard once something being told about the plane wings being tilted upwards due to the dynamic stresses that occur where the wings attatch to the fuselage. It was something about that by pretensioning the wings to tilt upwards there would be an upward force at all times so that in situations where there is no lift the load would still pull the wings upwards instead of going through zero. if theres a lift load the forces at the wings would also go upwards. This would decrease fatigue stresses. Is there any logic behind that?

    〪 〪⃝ eigengrau〪 〪⃝ eigengrau8 måneder siden
  • Great video. One point to mention is some aircraft break the mould, e.g. Cessna 172 has high mounted wings but they're dihedral (not dramatically so).

    Paul RedmondPaul Redmond8 måneder siden
  • Hello, i have a question. What is the dihedral angle of flying wing?

    Subhadeep GhoshSubhadeep Ghosh8 måneder siden
  • "stable" I think you mean "insufficiently maneuverable."

    Peter SmythePeter Smythe8 måneder siden
  • Just if you guys are wondering if nebula is worth it, yes it is. The content is really nice and professional. And it’s without ads. It is totally worth the few euros a month

    noah geerdinknoah geerdink9 måneder siden
  • As a kid, a few paper planes made it clear that tilting the wingtips up made it super stable, while tilting down almost always caused a corkscrew dive. Thanks to you, I finally understand why!

    uum6uum69 måneder siden
  • So, low mounted-wings make the plane unstable, high-mounted wings make it stable. anhedral wings make the plane unstable, while dihedral wings make it stable. Although this probably is a coincidence to some degree, higher angled and higher mounted wings make the plane more stable, and lower angled and lower mounted wings make it unstable.

    Andrew LiuAndrew Liu9 måneder siden
    • Just thought about it, if there was a plane that could change the dihedral/anhedral angle of it's wings in flight, it could be very maneuverable while also very stable. Could it?

      Andrew LiuAndrew Liu9 måneder siden
  • Can someone explain why he says the pendulum effect doesn't make sense. If the center of lift is higher than the center of gravity it makes sense to me that when the aircraft is rotated the col and the cog are no longer vertically aligned and that a proton of the weight would act as a torque on the center of lift to bring it in line. What makes that incorrect?

    LuckierBreadLuckierBread9 måneder siden
  • Just a small addition to the information regarding the corsair. The corsair was originally designed as a dive bomber. In a creative move designers removed the concept of independent dive brakes in place of using the lander gear as a dive break, thus using one part to fix two problems. In doing this the gear length could not be extended without significant strengthening and added complexity.

    JzeroJzero10 måneder siden
  • High wing airplanes that require more maneuverability are affected by the Keel Effect so they use Anhedral wings to increase maneuverability. Case in point is the Cessna 172 which is both a high wing and Dihedraled.

    Kenneth ChoKenneth Cho10 måneder siden
  • So its for manuevers? Thats why the corsair have a good turning time.

    Ace Gabriel PegaAce Gabriel Pega10 måneder siden
  • Besides the mentioned reasons, wings on transport aircraft like the An-225 are shoulder mounted to keep the massive wing box away from the cargo bay and thus make it fully usable over the whole length of the fuselage. As an additional side info for the big engine clearance from the ground Military transport aircraft are often designed for take offs and landings on rough surfaces. The higher the engine clearance the less risk of sucking in any kind of dirt, sand, gravel etc.

    Sven the manSven the man10 måneder siden
  • 5:04 Mig 29 Su27 Mig 21: BRUH

    rayo toxirayo toxi10 måneder siden
  • Can you explain the weird aerodynamics of the vought xf5u?

    ZuccX99ZuccX9910 måneder siden
  • Another reason high mounted wings are angled down, is because for some planes (like the Antonov) the wings bend to become straight

    Lonely CactusLonely Cactus10 måneder siden
  • F104

    Tyfighters002 VerkerkTyfighters002 Verkerk10 måneder siden
  • they also get bonus points for looking sexy as fuck

    sikosiko10 måneder siden
  • When you become a paper plane engineer by using a pencil to roll the high mounted wings upward so that it could reach the head of your classmate at a longer distance 😂

    Anonymous PersonAnonymous Person10 måneder siden
  • Great now I have do math fuck no

    Mark turnerMark turner10 måneder siden
  • Why is there a vertical component? Shouldn’t the relative wind be opposite the flight path? 2:38

    Michael D’AngeloMichael D’Angelo10 måneder siden
  • So how I implement this new knowledge into warthunder game ? notown.info/two/video/yrx9dqthqZuqw9U.html

    GuderIIGuderII10 måneder siden
  • 3:00 High mounted wings tend to be more in use on cargo/heavy load type airplanes. Bombers, Miltiary Transports, really small/weak engine planes. One reason of course is more clearance for wing mounted engines. But especially cessna loves the high mounted wing, but loathes the wing mounted engine. But having the correcting force be closer to the fuselage on the lower wing, might help give the correction force a bit more "omph" for the same wingspan and speed.

    Christopher GChristopher G10 måneder siden
  • At 6:38 it should be AN 225. You got it right earlier.

    raymondgoubetraymondgoubet10 måneder siden
  • NOtownr: Creates detailed explainatiom about planes me: haha plane go brrrr

    BokchoyMaster69BokchoyMaster6910 måneder siden
    • A10 fan i see

      Felipe CFelipe C10 måneder siden
  • Dihedral: "I'm stabilizing in rolls!" Directional Stability: "I got bad news for you."

    Brendan WhiteBrendan White11 måneder siden
  • Me, a mechanical engineer: Because planes go up in the sky.

    Vedanth BhatnagarVedanth Bhatnagar11 måneder siden
  • No mention of low-wing anhedrals like the old Tupolev passenger planes?? Hmm.

    Stig_Clarkson37Stig_Clarkson3711 måneder siden
  • AIRcraft

    ShimozukachiShimozukachi11 måneder siden
  • loving the angle of attach

    Walks with TraxxasWalks with Traxxas11 måneder siden
  • “a wide variety of variations” is a lot of variations indeed

    Winston PelosoWinston Peloso11 måneder siden
  • 3:13 I gotta know the link for this video, TF39s...

    Planes and GamesPlanes and Games11 måneder siden
  • What's wrong with the pendulum effect? You said it's wrong, but didn't explain how wrong. I'm thinking really hard about it, and I can't see how it is wrong! Pls kindly explain.

    Rami EmadRami Emad11 måneder siden
    • Look up videos about the rocket pendulum effect, this is similar. Basically in a pendulum the pivot point is the pivot itself where the pendulum is mounted. But in an aircraft/rocket the craft is free floating, so the pivot point is not the wings/engines, but the center of mass.

      Ascher LafayetteAscher Lafayette10 måneder siden
  • i have also heard for the an225 that the high mounted wings gave a strong support surface to mount the russian space shuttles on that the plane was originally designed to carry. it can also be used to carry heavy external cargo this way. althought hat being said, the 747 was also able to carry the shuttle and it was a low mounted wing. so maybe a simple reinforcing of the roof structure and proper mounting points is all thats needed to carry external roof cargo.

    gameboy3800gameboy380011 måneder siden
  • You mean to say Hawker Siddley Harrier.

    TheTheÅr siden
  • High mounted wings keep engines higher up and thus avoid FOD (important in low quality airfield which is important in military systems in particular, as the An225 was a tank mover) which was also a reason that planes aimed at servicing lesser developed airfields in the mid 20th favored rear engine mounts (like the Vickers and some soviet designs) as well as to carry the Buran on its back (the reason for the two knobs there) and the wing box was the best place to mount it to.

    Scott KirbyScott KirbyÅr siden
  • Isn't gull wing also called 'Polish wing' or 'Pulaski wing'?

    Dori KadlubowskyDori KadlubowskyÅr siden
  • The first plane, the Wright Flyer, had anhedral wings, because they did not fully understand the physics of aerodynamic stability. They knew enough to get off the ground.. barely. Dihedral adds stability similarly to the way slight toe-in in a properly aligned front wheels of an automobile will solve steering wander and under-steering.

    Dave BDave BÅr siden
  • I tought the high mounted wings in cargo planes were for the hight weight they need to charge

    J RotelaJ RotelaÅr siden
  • A big part of the Corsair's wing design was drag. They wanted to keep the fuselage as narrow as possible for speed so in the early variants had all the air intakes in the wings. But they also wanted to keep the landing gear short for carrier lands and higher speed dive brakes.

    Nathan 75Nathan 75År siden
  • Hey bud, I'm really like your channel, quite helpful. Was thinking I kinda make you suggestion and petition about hot exhaust gas ingestion on STOVL video, something like *Problems with de SVTOL * OR "ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STOVL ", man seriously who better than you to explain it, I thought Brian's got talent. So please o would appreciate if you give it a thought. Please make this community awesome. Lots of thanks.

  • This channel is the best i had a science presentation and i learned alot from his videos and everyone from my class liked it thank you

    Nahid KarimiNahid KarimiÅr siden
  • One thing to note is that the vertical stabilizer also contributes to dihedral effect. In a side-slip, the angle of attack induced on a vertical surface that protrudes above the center of gravity will produce a moment that counters the roll. If you consider a lot of the planes that have zero or negative dihedral, you'll see that a lot of them have relatively large vertical fins. The F-104 is a good example of this.

    jalvrusjalvrusÅr siden
  • “greater angle of attach”

    Shadow 989Shadow 989År siden
  • Your explanation of the Corsair is incomplete. If they had JUST needed ground clearance, they could have gone with a low wing. You say the inverted gull was not for any aerodynamic reason, but it was. The idea is that the most aerodynamic way to join a wing to the fuselage is at a right angle. That would mean a mid-fuselage wing if it were straight. THAT combined with the engine size and landing gear weight wouldn't work, but with the inverted gull, the wing could meet the fuse at a right angle while still providing ground clearance and beefy landing gear. www.usni.org/magazines/naval-history-magazine/1995/february/designing-bent-wing-bird

    Kevin McNultyKevin McNultyÅr siden
  • because the Corsair wouldn't look as cool.

    Max DubersteinMax DubersteinÅr siden
  • I like the return to the old style thumbnail!

    Off_mah_lawnOff_mah_lawnÅr siden
  • they go upwards to go up

    Jeph A. WindowsJeph A. WindowsÅr siden
  • The pendulum explanation of anhedral high-mounted wings reminds me of the pendulum rocket fallacy.

    Nathaniel KenckeNathaniel KenckeÅr siden
  • F-16 that's not low mounted wings ..

    Robert BaniaRobert BaniaÅr siden
  • Wow ! This is complicatet but it dose make sence.. Very good documentary .

    Robert BaniaRobert BaniaÅr siden
  • I didn't understand the roll stability of anhedral wings

    Akshay AnilkumarAkshay AnilkumarÅr siden
  • I think another of the main reasons for the F4U's wing is to reduce interference drag at the wing root by having the wing mounted to the fuselage at around 90°

    Oliver GsOliver GsÅr siden
  • The F-16 was designed to be unstable in more than one axis. It is so unstable that if you lose power in the engine it will only Glide as long as it is at relatively high speed. But it will fall out of the air. You cannot land it safely without power. How much does dihedral help when you have asymmetric thrust because somebody replaced an engine under one of the Wings and didn't trim them so that the same throttle setting isn't giving you the same thrust from each engine? Asymmetric thrust will cause a plane to roll and come out of the sky relatively quickly if the flight crew is not paying attention while they're trying to fix some other issue. That has been the cause of several failures, especially in Asia where they so depend on the electronics of the aircraft. That they forget to fly the plane. The F4U Corsair issues work multiple. The desired speed of the aircraft, required a propeller of such size, ultimately requiring them to articulate the wings so that they didn't have to use to have your gear and short-circuit the overall function of the aircraft. Although the design speed was intended to be at least 400 miles per hour. It did go considerably faster than that fairly quickly in its later development.

    44 Hawk44 HawkÅr siden
  • How do parasol wings achieve roll stability?

    Jacob RegensteinJacob RegensteinÅr siden
  • 0:48 the lighting makes the plane look like a flight sim plane with really bad graphics😂

    Abdoole2Abdoole2År siden
  • What would happen if you designed a plane with forward swept wings with a dihedral angle? Will the plane be just slightly unstable? Can the magnitude of unstableness be controlled?

    kanchana manyamkanchana manyamÅr siden
  • You mean HOW, not why. The why is because we want to. English please.

    Kiere LuursKiere LuursÅr siden